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Hazardous Chemicals: Agents of Risk and Change, 1800-2000

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Series
Volume 17

Environment in History: International Perspectives

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Hazardous Chemicals

Agents of Risk and Change, 1800-2000

Edited by Ernst Homburg and Elisabeth Vaupel

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422 pages, 18 illus., bibliog., index

ISBN  978-1-78920-319-6 25% OFF! $140.00/£100.00 $105.00/£75.00 Hb Published (August 2019)

eISBN 978-1-78920-320-2 eBook


Hb   Buy the eBook! 25% off $34.95 $26.21 Request a Review or Examination Copy (in Digital Format) Recommend to your Library Available in GOBI®

Reviews

“These very rich investigations into the history of poison, hazard and regulation contain new insights and empirical findings. Hazardous Chemicals is a very substantial addition to the literature in the field.” Carsten Reinhardt, University of Bielefeld

Hazardous Chemicals is a bold contribution to the blooming field of historical studies on toxic products. It includes many excellent chapters that approach the topic from many different perspectives, covering a broad range of harmful substances, geographical contexts, and stakeholders while giving insightful analyses of relevant cases and offering comparative perspectives on toxic risk regulation.” • José Ramón Bertomeu Sánchez, Universitat de València

Description

Although poisonous substances have been a hazard for the whole of human history, it is only with the development and large-scale production of new chemical substances over the last two centuries that toxic, manmade pollutants have become such a varied and widespread danger. Covering a host of both notorious and little-known chemicals, the chapters in this collection investigate the emergence of specific toxic, pathogenic, carcinogenic, and ecologically harmful chemicals as well as the scientific, cultural and legislative responses they have prompted. Each study situates chemical hazards in a long-term and transnational framework and demonstrates the importance of considering both the natural and the social contexts in which their histories have unfolded.

Ernst Homburg is Professor of History of Science and Technology Emeritus at Maastricht University. His scholarly work has included the co-editorship of two multivolume book series on the history of technology in the Netherlands, as well as of New Dictionary of Scientific Biography (2007), and Solvay: History of a Multinational Family Firm (2012, with Kenneth Bertrams and Nicolas Coupain).

Elisabeth Vaupel studied chemistry, biology and history in Mainz, Freiburg/Breisgau and Munich. She is a historian of chemistry in the research institute of the Deutsches Museum, where she was previously head of the chemistry department. She also teaches the history of chemistry at Stuttgart University. She is co-editor of Das Deutsche Museum in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus: Eine Bestandsaufnahme (2010, with Stefan L. Wolff).

Subject: Environmental Studies 18th/19th Century History 20th Century History



Contents

List of Figures and Tables
Abbreviations
Acknowledgements

Introduction: Hazardous Chemicals, 1800–2000: A Conceptual and Regulatory Overview
Ernst Homburg and Elisabeth Vaupel

PART I: FROM ACUTE TO CHRONIC POISONING: REGULATING OLD POISONS IN THE INDUSTRIAL AGE

Chapter 1. Schweinfurt Green and the Sanitary Police: The Fight Against Copper Arsenite Pigments
Joost Mertens†

Chapter 2. The Banning of White Lead: French and International Regulations
Laurence Lestel

Chapter 3. Old Situations, New Complications: Lead and Lead Poisoning in a Changing World
Christian Warren

PART II: DISCOVERING NEW HEALTH IMPACTS: CARCIOGENESIS, MUTAGENESIS AND MORE IN TIMES OF UNCERTAINTY AND NON-KNOWLEDGE

Chapter 4. Discovering Chemical Carcinogenesis: The Case of the Aromatic Amines
Heiko Stoff and Anthony S. Travis

Chapter 5. Cyclamates: A Tale of Uncertain Knowledge (1930s–1980s)
Alexander von Schwerin

Chapter 6. Cadmium Poisoning in Japan: The Itai-itai Disease and Beyond
Masanori Kaji†

Chapter 7. Dioxins: The “Total Poison”
Stefan Böschen

PART III: NEW PRODUCTS, NEW EFFECTS. THE DISCOVERY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE LONG SHADOW OF THE 1960S

Chapter 8. Organophosphates
Frederick R. Davis

Chapter 9. A Tale of Two Nations: DDT in the USA and the UK
Peter J. T. Morris

Chapter 10. War and Peace: The Phenoxy Herbicides
Amy M. Hay

Chapter 11. Raising a Stink: The Short Happy Life of MTBE
John K. Smith

Conclusions
Ernst Homburg and Elisabeth Vaupel

Index

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